Category Archives: By Education

How To Be A Better Professional

            When it comes to making sure that you do your best in your career field, it really all comes down to how you present yourself and the skills and what you take on yourself. Although it may seem nearly impossible to learn how to get ahead in your career, anything is possible if you put your mind to it. There are multiple ways that we can build ourselves up to improve our lives, both professionally and personally. Keep reading for great tips to do just that.

            The first thing you must realize when it comes to improving your life, be that simply or very radically, is that there are stops in the way, and some people may be bigger than others. For the most part, it all has to do with your personal confidence. While being overconfident can be a detriment to your personal and public career, as we have seen in recent days, it’s something that you should definitely try to avoid. Being over confident usually involves not having the skill or knowledge to back up your claims, but if you do have those things, there is absolutely no problem in being confident. In fact, your confidence can actually mean that you’ll be much more likely and able to let other people know what kind of person you are, as well as the things you may be able to do for them.

            The next thing you should consider when you’re looking to step up your career is your skill and knowledge. This is obviously the basis for what actually matters when it comes to doing your job, and doing your job well and right. It is the core for any business professional, or at least it should be. Although you can definitely be successful without this, you will do more good for the world and yourself if you concentrate on it and make it your main goal. For the most part, if you are concentrating on your skill and the things that you have to offer, you’ll be much more able to convince people that you are who they need to fill a specific position. This is not an easy task. In fact, it can take a lot of work on your own time to get to that point. Going to school or learning what you need to for work is usually just not enough. You need to stay involved in what is happening in your field at all times, and you need to take an interest in your field and what you can do to improve it. This will, without a doubt, skyrocket you into better positions, having more confidence, and understanding what you need to do to work on yourself.

            Lastly, although your skill is definitely what matters most, and what will change the game for you long term, you should also think about the way in which you present yourself to more easily get in the door. Although people quite easily tout all the things they can do for a company without having actually made an impression, people still have to go with what they offer. One of the main objects when hiring someone is hiring someone that looks good, not only because it looks good for the company, but also because people who dress a bit better generally take care of themselves and know what is expected of them at a base level. Nine West is an excellent place to start when it comes to business apparel.

or Teachers Working Through DACA

Jaime Ballesteros tried to contain his tears on Tuesday while teaching Brooklyn sixth graders about liquids, gases and solids. In between science classes at a charter school in East New York, he broke down at his desk.

The government had just canceled the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, which had granted temporary protection from deportation to immigrants brought to the country at a young age. Under DACA, as the program is known, they attended college and obtained work permits, and many went back into the profession that inspired them in the first place.

“The last three years that I have been teaching was like a world of possibility for me and my students,” said Mr. Ballesteros, 25, who is from the Philippines. “Today, I just didn’t feel that same level of hope.”

He was just one of the estimated 30,000 DACA recipients in New York who now face uncertain futures, according to statistics kept by the city. The Trump administration gave Congress six months to come up with a legislative solution, while allowing the DACA permits to last until they expire.

The jobs these DACA recipients, often known as Dreamers, do have a wide impact in New York, from small business owners to financial analysts to internet entrepreneurs and nurses. In May 2016, New York State allowed DACA recipients to get licenses for teaching and 57 other professions, after a 2015 appellate court decision paved the way in ruling that a DACA recipient from Staten Island, Cesar Vargas, could become a lawyer.

‘The Way to Survive It Was to Make A’s’

The road to Virginia Episcopal School was more secluded in those days, winding a few miles from the white section of segregated Lynchburg through a wood of maple and oak to the school’s rolling campus, shielded by trees and the more distant Blue Ridge Mountains. The usual stream of cars navigated the bends on the first day of school, white families ferrying their adolescent sons. Like nearly every other elite prep school in the South, it had been the boarding school’s tradition since its founding in 1916 that its teachers guide white boys toward its ideal of manhood — erudite, religious, resilient. But that afternoon of Sept. 8, 1967, a taxi pulled up the long driveway carrying a black teenager, Marvin Barnard. He had journeyed across the state, 120 miles by bus, from the black side of Richmond, unaccompanied, toting a single suitcase. In all of Virginia, a state whose lawmakers had responded to the 1954 court-ordered desegregation of public schools with a strategy of declared “massive resistance,” no black child had ever enrolled in a private boarding school. When Marvin stepped foot on V.E.S. ground, wearing a lightweight sport jacket, a white dress shirt, a modest necktie and a cap like the ones the Beatles were wearing, the white idyll was over.

Marvin had just turned 14 when he arrived, and at a little over five feet tall and 100 pounds, he was a tiny thing. His face was boyishly open, eyes and mouth big and bright, black hair that grew in waves toward a lopsided widow’s peak. His skin was yellow-brown. Marvin had the spirit of a bouncing ball, and back home in Richmond he’d kept his classmates and teachers laughing. In all his years of schooling, he’d never earned a grade other than A. The old couple who raised him, his aunt and uncle, had given him a dime for each perfect report, but money wasn’t Marvin’s motivation. He lived to please them, and after his aunt died when he was 12, Marvin lived to please his uncle. Going off to V.E.S. had delighted him and just about everyone else. “The neighbors and the other kids, they were just excited,” Marvin recalled. “The thing that gave me such a rush was that I could see it in their eyes. It’s like: ‘Well, you go, and you show them. You show them what you can do. You show them for us.’ ”

Another black boy, Bill Alexander, had also been sent that year. Bill had traveled by jet from his hometown, Nashville, to Washington and then on to Lynchburg aboard a propeller plane. He, too, was alone, though he brought more bags than Marvin, coming as he did from Nashville’s black middle class. At the airport, Bill hailed a taxi driven by a black cabby. “To Virginia Episcopal School,” Bill told him. But those were impossible words to the man’s ears. He took Bill to a black Baptist seminary instead. “I told the man, ‘No, I’m going to Virginia Episcopal School on V.E.S. Road,’ ” Bill told me. “He kinda looked at me. I must have said it two, three, four times before he drove all the way up to V.E.S.”

Betsy DeVos Says She Will Rewrite Rules on Campus Sex Assault

ARLINGTON, Va. — Saying that the Obama administration’s approach to policing campus sexual assault had “failed too many students,” Education Secretary Betsy DeVos said on Thursday that her administration would rewrite the rules in an effort to protect both the victims of sexual assault and the accused.

Ms. DeVos did not say what changes she had in mind. But in a strongly worded speech, she made clear she believed that in an effort to protect victims, the previous administration had gone too far and forced colleges to adopt procedures that sometimes deprived accused students of their rights.

“Through intimidation and coercion, the failed system has clearly pushed schools to overreach,” she said in an address at George Mason University in suburban Arlington, Va. “With the heavy hand of Washington tipping the balance of her scale, the sad reality is that Lady Justice is not blind on campuses today.”

Advocates for assault victims reacted strongly and swiftly, as did Arne Duncan, who was education secretary during most of the Obama administration.

“This administration wants to take us back to the days when colleges swept sexual assault under the rug,” Mr. Duncan said in a statement. “Instead of building on important work to pursue justice, they are once again choosing politics over students, and students will pay the price.”

Frederick M. Hess, director of education policy for the conservative-leaning American Enterprise Institute, noted that courts have reversed some punishments handed down by campus administrators.

“I think DeVos laid out a sensible, responsible approach to crafting a more measured policy that can better secure the rights of all involved,” he said.

In recent years, campuses across the country have been roiled by high-profile sexual assault cases. A scandal involving the Baylor University football team ultimately led to the removal of the school’s president, Kenneth W. Starr, the former independent counsel whose work led to President Bill Clinton’s impeachment.

A 2015 survey of students at 27 schools, commissioned by the Association of American Universities, found that nearly one in four women had complained of sexual assault or sexual misconduct. Advocates for victims seized on the study, but as with similar reports, it was criticized by some for overstating the problem, and even its authors acknowledged that it had limitations.

Though Ms. DeVos said she believed that accused students were often mistreated, she also said that victims were being ill-served by a quasi-judicial process that lacked the sophistication required for such sensitive matters.

Ms. DeVos repeatedly used the term “survivors,” a term often preferred by victims when speaking of sexual assault. And she also vowed that colleges would not return to the days when sexual assault complaints were ignored.

“One rape is one too many,” she said. “One assault is one too many. One aggressive act of harassment is one too many.”

But her remarks focused more heavily on the young men who, she said, were denied due process in campus proceedings, sometimes attempting suicide.

She referred to campus sexual misconduct hearings as “kangaroo courts” that forced administrators to act as “judge and jury.” Referring to scores of lawsuits filed by punished students, she said: “Survivors aren’t well served when they are re-traumatized with appeal after appeal because the failed system failed the accused. And no student should be forced to sue their way to due process.”

She suggested that colleges had gone too far in other types of cases, too. In the speech, Ms. DeVos referred to a case at the University of Southern California in which the football team’s kicker, Matt Boermeester, was suspended from school and kicked off the squad after being investigated for physically assaulting his girlfriend. The girlfriend later spoke out in defense of Mr. Boermeester, saying no assault had happened.

In a statement Thursday, the university said it stood by its investigation, and that evidence from multiple witnesses suggested “an act of violence took place that violated our university codes of conduct and Title IX regulations.”

Private University in North Korea Reopens Despite Travel Ban

SEOUL, South Korea — The only foreign-funded private university in North Korea started a new semester on Monday, but without its usual American professors because of Washington’s ban on travel to the country, university officials said.

The travel ban, which took effect Friday, has threatened the operation of Pyongyang University of Science and Technology, a school in the North Korean capital that was financed by evangelical Christians abroad.

The university has been relying on 60 to 80 volunteer professors from the outside, about half of them Americans. It can no longer accept American volunteers unless it wins exemptions from the travel ban.

For now, the fall semester started with 20 to 25 non-American foreign volunteers, according to Colin McCulloch, the university’s director of external relations.

The university said in a statement that it was recruiting more non-American volunteers willing to teach there.

Under the travel restrictions, an American passport is no longer valid for travel to North Korea. Among the hardest hit were humanitarian workers who have been operating in the impoverished country.

Washington has said it would consider a one-time, special-validation visa for journalists, humanitarian workers, Red Cross officials and those who travel for “the national interest.” The Pyongyang university said it would apply for such a visa for American volunteers.

The university’s founding chairman, James Kim, and its chancellor, Park Chan-mo, both American passport- holders, visited the campus in August but had to leave last week before the travel ban went into effect, university officials said.

The United States announced the travel ban in July in response to the death of Otto F. Warmbier, an American college student who had been serving a 15-year sentence of hard labor in North Korea after being convicted of trying to steal a political poster. Mr. Warmbier, who was 22, died in June shortly after the North released him. He had been in a coma for more than a year.

The ban came into effect amid heightened tensions between Washington and Pyongyang over North Korea’s latest nuclear test.

The Pyongyang university was founded in 2010 with the goal of helping North Korea’s future elite learn the skills to modernize and open up the isolated country. It provides students with an education they cannot get elsewhere — computer science, agriculture, international finance and management, all conducted in English by an international faculty. Its Christian teachers are forbidden to preach.

But the university’s rare experiment came into question as two of its volunteers, both of them Korean-Americans, were detained this year by the North Korean authorities on vague charges of committing “hostile acts.”

Education by the Numbers

here are as many American public school educations as there are students. One shared factor that affects a vast number of them, however, is race. Its impact drives the four narrative features in this week’s Education Issue. But numbers can tell their own stories too. The statistics here suggest how much has changed — and not changed — in the more than 60 years since the Supreme Court’s ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was supposed to make education equally accessible to all Americans.


The racial makeup of the U.S. school system is shifting. Public schools are seeing surges in the enrollment of students of color; Latinos are leading the increases, while the numbers of white students are shrinking. In Washington private schools are majority white, as fewer black students have enrolled over time.


Over the course of decades, court-ordered desegregation led to more diverse student bodies in Southern schools. But after integration peaked in 1988, courts began releasing schools from their mandates, and segregation began to take hold again. The trend extends beyond the South, too: Metropolitan districts from California to New York are seeing higher and higher concentrations of black and Latino students in certain schools.


Schools filled with students of color receive less funding, but employ more inexperienced teachers. Accelerated programs and classes remain less accessible for black and Latino students — and their inability to tap these resources can lead to the further stratification of classes by race.


New York City’s highest middle-school test scores in English come from a majority-white-and-Asian district; its lowest come from a nearly all black and Hispanic district. However, attendance at specialized high schools in New York almost always leads to on-time graduation, and pre-kindergarten programs have proven to be remarkably beneficial for black children.

Lotfi Zadeh, Father of Mathematical ‘Fuzzy Logic,’ Dies at 96

Lotfi Zadeh, the computer scientist and electrical engineer whose theories of “fuzzy logic” rippled across academia and industry, influencing everything from linguistics, economics and medicine to air-conditioners, vacuum cleaners and rice cookers, died on Wednesday at his home in Berkeley, Calif. He was 96.

His son, Norman, confirmed the death.

Emerging from an academic paper Mr. Zadeh published in 1965 as a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, “fuzzy logic,” as he called it, was an ambitious effort to close the gap between mathematics and the intuitive way that humans talk, think and interact with the world.

If someone asks you to identify “a very tall man,” for instance, you can easily do so — even if you are not given a specific height. Similarly, you can balance a broom handle on your finger without calculating how far it can lean in one direction without toppling over.

Mr. Zadeh envisioned a mathematical framework that could mimic these human talents — that could deal with ambiguity and uncertainty in similar ways. Rather than creating strict boundaries for real world concepts, he made the boundaries “fuzzy.” Something was not in or out, for example. It sat somewhere on the continuum between in and out, and at any given moment a set of more complex rules defined inclusion.

“It was a bridge between theory and reality,” said Rudolf Seising, a professor at the University of Jena in Germany who specializes in fuzzy logic and worked alongside Professor Zadeh in his later years.

In academic circles, Professor Zadeh’s work was controversial and sometimes ridiculed, in part because it challenged other forms of mathematics and in part because of his terminology. “Fuzzy logic” seemed to make fun of itself.

But the logic itself was not fuzzy, said Professor Timothy Ross of the University of New Mexico. It was a way of dealing with “fuzzy sets,” collections of information whose boundaries were vague or imprecise. Over the years it proved to be an enormously influential idea.

According to the website Google Scholar, Mr. Zadeh’s 1965 paper, titled “Fuzzy Sets,” has been cited by more than 90,000 scholarly works, and his mathematical concepts have provided practical new ways to build consumer electronics, trade stocks, forecast weather and more.

Lotfi Asker Zadeh was born on Feb. 4, 1921, in Baku, Azerbaijan, which was then a part of the Soviet Union. His father was a journalist, and his mother, born in Russia, was a doctor.

After the family moved across the Soviet border to Iran, Mr. Zadeh graduated with a science degree from the University of Tehran. During World War II he sold goods to the American Army, earning enough money to continue his education in the United States, his son said. He received a master’s degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1946 and a Ph.D. from Columbia in 1949.

Lotfi Zadeh in an undated photograph.CreditUniversity of California, Berkeley

As a professor at Columbia, working alongside John Ragazzini, Mr. Zadeh developed a mathematical method called z-transformations, which became a standard means of processing digital signals inside computers and other equipment. He moved to Berkeley in 1959.

Elijah Polak, a professor emeritus at Berkeley, recalled in an interview that Professor Zadeh’s theory of fuzzy sets emerged during their walks across the campus. Professor Zadeh began noticing that when people parked their cars, they would intuitively turn their wheels slightly to the left and then slightly to the right before pulling into a parking space.

“But how much is slightly?” he would ask.

Fuzzy sets began as an effort to use mathematics to define “slightly” — or “tall” or “fast” or “beautiful” or any other concept that has ambiguous boundaries.

Professor Zadeh originally envisioned fuzzy sets as simply a framework for harnessing language. But the idea expanded into other areas. It could provide a way for insurance companies to assess damage after an earthquake, for instance. Is the damage serious, moderate or minimal under company rules? Fuzzy sets could help.

“They opened up a whole new way of addressing problems where you don’t have precise data,” said Professor Ross, the author of a textbook on the practical uses of fuzzy logic.

The method could also help build machinery and electronics that gradually move from one state to another, like an automobile transmission, which shifts smoothly from first gear to second, or a thermostat, which flows just as smoothly from hot to cold. Hot and cold need not be precisely defined. They could exist on a continuum.

In the 1980s, Professor Zadeh’s ideas became popular among Japanese manufacturers, thanks to heavy investment from the government. Today the hype has faded, but fuzzy logic remains an active part of the mathematics that underpin the modern world.

In recognition of his work, Professor Zadeh received more than 50 engineering and academic awards. From 1963 to 1968 he was chairman of Berkeley’s electrical engineering department, helping to shift its focus toward computer science, a move that gave rise to one of the world’s top university computer science programs.

Professor Zadeh’s son is his only immediate survivor. His wife, Fania, died this year. A daughter, Stella, died in 2006. He was to be buried in Baku.

Professor Zadeh and others saw fuzzy logic as a tool for eventually building true artificial intelligence, and though many academics, including some Berkeley colleagues, questioned how effective these methods would be, he held firm.

“He always took criticism as a compliment,” said Stuart Russell, a Berkeley professor who worked next door to Mr. Zadeh for many years. “It meant that people were considering what he had to say.”

Regents Approve Plan to Evaluate and Improve New York Schools

The New York State Board of Regents on Monday approved a plan laying out the state’s goals for its education system, as required by the sweeping federal education law signed by President Barack Obama in 2015 known as the Every Student Succeeds Act.

The Regents’ approval means the state can now submit its plan to the federal Department of Education for review and approval.

The plan details how the Regents will implement the federal law, including how individual schools will be evaluated and identified for what the law refers to as either comprehensive or targeted support and improvement.

Under the plan, elementary and middle schools would continue to be evaluated on English and math test scores and high schools on graduation rates. But the plan would also hold schools accountable for other measures, such as performance on science and social studies exams, the number of students making progress in achieving English language proficiency, college and career readiness, chronic absenteeism and, eventually, out-of-school suspensions.

Under the plan, the lowest-performing 5 percent of schools receiving Title I federal funds, which go to low-income schools and high schools with six-year graduation rates less than 67 percent, would be identified for comprehensive support and improvement. Those schools would receive additional funding and supervision, including visits from external reviewers, and will be required to choose at least one school improvement strategy from a list approved by the state. Schools not receiving Title I funds that performed within the range of that bottom five percent would also qualify for the program.

In general, schools that fail to get off the comprehensive support and improvement list after three years would be put into the state’s receivership program, which might lead them to close.

One source of controversy has been the plan’s treatment of transfer high schools, which give students who have fallen behind or dropped out of other schools a second chance to graduate. New York City has 51 such schools, serving 13,000 students. Because they serve students who have struggled elsewhere, very few transfer schools have six-year graduation rates of 67 percent or higher, meaning that almost all transfer schools would be designated as in need of comprehensive support and improvement.

In response to concerns expressed by city officials and advocates for transfer schools, the state modified the plan so that transfer schools will not automatically be put into receivership if they are on the list for three years. However, some educators are still worried that putting transfer schools on the list would stigmatize them and create an incentive to avoid serving the neediest students.

Chad Aldeman, a principal at Bellwether Education Partners, a nonprofit education research and consulting firm, praised the academic standards and assessments on which New York’s plan is based, as well as its blueprint for helping schools in need of improvement. But he said that the very complicated system by which the state will identify the lowest-performing five percent of schools could be a problem.

“The biggest challenges, I think, will be translating this system for teachers and parents and educators,” he said. “If someone doesn’t understand what they’re being held accountable for, there’s a risk that they can’t change their behavior.”

After the Storm, It’s Finally the First Day of School in Houston

HOUSTON — Kacey Cartwright and his family lost their home during Hurricane Harvey, spent a few difficult nights sheltered at a convention center and are now living in a hotel far from their old neighborhood. So the first day of school here on Monday was a welcome respite.

“It takes my mind off of everything that’s going on,” said Kacey, who is 16, a junior at Wheatley High School and a lineman on the football team. Last week, he picked up some donated clothes from the school gym after losing most of his possessions in the storm. “I get to see my friends and go to practice and just escape reality.”

On Monday, about 80 percent of the Houston Independent School District’s 287 schools opened after a two-week delay caused by the storm that drenched this region in late August. Most of the other schools are slated to reopen for classes later this month.

This district serves about 215,000 students across a vast 312 square miles, and saw an estimated $700 million in costs and damage, including swamped classrooms, soaked drywall and computers that might not work. Still, a remarkably speedy recovery appeared to be underway here on Monday, suggesting that the school system may be able to avoid the extent of upheaval and tumult that teachers and students in New Orleans experienced after Hurricane Katrina.

A social worker, Brittney Matthews, second from left, helped Wheatley students find their classroom assignments on Monday. CreditIlana Panich-Linsman for The New York Times

An anticipated exodus of Houston students to public schools in other big cities — Dallas and Austin — has so far not occurred. As of Monday morning, the Dallas Independent School District said it had enrolled 220 evacuated children. It appeared that although many Houston families remained out of their swamped homes, they were lodging with friends and relatives across the Houston region.

“To be online two weeks after Harvey hit is just amazing,” Mayor Sylvester Turner said.

Still, big challenges remain. Nine campuses with the worst damage will be moved to vacant properties or will share space with other schools. By this week, some buildings were still being assessed for safety — leaving thousands of parents unsure when their children would be back in a classroom, or where that classroom might be. And 270 teachers have been unable to go to work because of damage to their own homes or other disruptions after the storm, school officials said.

School officials have distributed thousands of free uniforms to families who lost school supplies in damaged homes, and announced that all students would receive three free meals a day for the duration of the school year, regardless of family income. Richard A. Carranza, the Houston schools superintendent, who formerly led the San Francisco school system, secured a $1 million donation for recovery efforts from Marc Benioff, a Silicon Valley philanthropist and the founder of

Monday looked in many ways like any other first day in Houston: Crossing guards stood on the corners, parents hugged their children, students chatted with friends and found their names on class assignment lists.

At Wheatley, a high school that is northeast of downtown Houston, the principal, Shirley A. Rose-Gilliam, greeted upperclassmen by name and directed traffic in the halls. She said she had been unsure how many students to expect. In the end, she was relieved. More students were at school on Monday, she said, than on any first day in her four-year tenure here.

A drop-off in enrollment could have led to a decrease in state funding and potential reassignment for teachers at a time when the school is already under scrutiny. Wheatley, whose student body is about half Hispanic, half African-American and 70 percent low-income, is in its sixth year with “improvement required” status. If test scores and graduation rates do not go up, the school could be shut down by the state.

“We’re working to get the scores where they need to get to, but at the same time, it’s not necessarily about scores,” Dr. Rose-Gilliam said. She said she was encouraging teachers to discuss the flooding in their classes, and urged her staff to help displaced students access counseling, clothing and even toiletries.

In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina 12 years ago, most New Orleans public schools remained closed for more than four months. The State of Louisiana took over most New Orleans public schools, instituting changes that created the nation’s first so-called “portfolio” school district, in which the majority of schools are independently managed charter schools. Gains in test scores and the high school graduation rate followed, yet the overhaul started a fierce, ongoing debate about how to balance education reform efforts with community control of schools. Thousands of experienced African-American educators with deep roots in New Orleans were replaced by a movement of largely young, white teachers from outside.

Liberal Lessons in Taking Back America

Marshall Ganz, shirt sleeves rolled up, spread his arms wide with a “join me.” Hands came together, slowly at first, then in a flurry of rapid, synchronized thwacks. A member of the old left — he dropped out of Harvard in 1964 to fight for civil rights in Mississippi and for California farmworkers with Cesar Chavez — Dr. Ganz was teaching the unity clap, the audible calling card of the United Farmworkers of America 50 years earlier.

“It’s not a trivial thing at all,” said Dr. Ganz, who had returned to his studies and is now a Harvard professor. Clapping is a collective action that builds cohesion and gets attention, and chanting is “a way of celebrating and honoring the values that are being enacted through this work.”

This was the fun stuff. Political organizing is tedious. It involves gathering people, setting group norms, defining roles and goals. And dogged on-the-ground labor.

These also happen to be the core aims of Dr. Ganz’s audience, members of an unsanctioned “school” created last spring by Harvard graduate students cold-cocked by the Trump victory. For those on the left, the election yanked away the scrim of sweet reason.

“For a long time we have been able to think that things have been pretty O.K.,” said Yasmin Radjy, one of 11 founders of the Resistance School, four sessions on political advocacy and action held in a lecture hall at the John F. Kennedy School of Government. Opposing forces now look more threatening. It is what spurred the students to invite professors and political veterans to lecture on the tools necessary to drive sustainable political change. Semester two is in the works.

The Resistance School focuses on “practical skills for taking back America” at a moment when front-porch politicking seems lost to likes and shares, online memes and long lists of diversity demands.

A 50-person army, many in their navy blue Resistance School T-shirts, operated in teams with elflike efficiency at the Kennedy School, working at odd hours to produce video highlights, lecture notes, syllabus materials and homework assignments. During lectures, students gathered in the “war room,” its conference table dotted with room-temperature pizza slices, to live tweet and select questions for the speaker from Facebook submissions.

In a wave of interest that surprised the founders, the videos have had more than 175,000 views; Yale and Grinnell students held “watch parties.”

To the audience, the Resistance School offered fresh information. “I think we sort of lost the idea that there was a need for organizing,” said Nina Vyedin, Vassar class of 2011. Co-founder of Indivisible Somerville, a chapter of the Indivisible project directing communities in opposing the Trump agenda, she and her under-30 group had been “passively active,” donating to a campaign or posting a Facebook status. “We have lost community,” said Ms. Vyedin, who works at Microsoft. “We need to rebuild it.”